Nanoparticles Advanced practice in tick control

Ticks are small blood-sucking ectoparasites that always remain as a potential vector of disease for the transmission of various pathogens in vertebrates and humans.

By Sahar Younis

These are responsible for the transmission of babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis and rickettsiosis and cause severe blood loss, reduce weight gain, and decrease milk and meat production. Tick ​​bite infestation results in enormous economic and productivity losses as it affects the livestock industry. It has increased the number of tick-borne diseases that have had a negative impact on global health. Ticks are responsible for transmitting harmful and transmissible pathogens than other blood-sucking organisms. Numerous control strategies, including potential chemical and biological control, have been adopted to control ticks. Unfortunately, due to the continued and indiscriminate use of chemical formulations against ticks, resistance to these chemical formulations has developed, along with the associated environmental concerns and contamination of meat and milk, posing a significant challenge to vector-borne disease control programs. The emerging tick control practice with nanoparticles in the field of nanosciences has proven to be highly effective and has attracted wide and impressive research attention in the current exposure scenario from vector-borne diseases.

Nanoparticles are small particles in the range of 1-100 micrometers that cannot be seen without a microscope and that, compared to large particles, have vital and potential properties. The word nano is derived from the Latin word nanus, which refers to very small size. These are made using biological, physical and chemical means. Among them, the biological method is inexpensive and does not require high pressure and temperature maintenance for nanosynthesis. Nanoparticles are generally classified according to shape, structure, origin and intended use. Different types of organic and inorganic (metals are used for their various applications in medicine and veterinary medicine by converting metal ions into nanoparticles. So far, metal, metal oxide and carbon nanoparticles are synthesized from plant extracts (green fabrication) and chemical nanoparticles synthetic pathways with chemicals. These differ in their effect on the target organism, the tick, depending on the origin of their formulation. The metallic nanosynthesis with plant extract is inexpensive and environmentally friendly, while the chemical nanosynthesis certain residues (residual) and environmental concerns.

The potential use of nanoparticles has healing benefits and can be used in the visual representation of certain diseases. The harmful and toxic effects of nanoparticles are well explained and documented in various researches. The ability of nanoparticles to kill adults and larvae largely depends on the synthesis of nanoparticles, i.e. size, weight and shape, given amount (dose) and concentration and controlled inconsistency of nanoparticles, which are characterized and standardized by various techniques. The electron microscope is used for biological and physical characterization, while the scanning electron microscope is used to describe the shape and size of the nanoparticle. The interaction between metal ions and the organism stimulates the toxicity process.

Due to their small size, these particles adhere to the exoskeleton and reach different parts of the body. Due to their ability to penetrate the cell, they have an incredible potential for drug delivery, which causes high toxicity compared to macroparticles. The toxicity mechanism of nanoparticles is based on the release of reactive oxygen species, which are highly reactive chemical molecules that are created when oxygen is encountered, causing leakage within the cell that disrupts cell function. It can bind to and damage the DNA of the target organism, ultimately leading to cell death by altering the natural mechanism within the cell. However, the actual mode of action of nanoparticles against ticks is still unknown and needs to be researched. Further research on these metals should focus on identifying the potential acaricidal (tick-killing) mechanism of these nanosynthesized particles. Nanoparticles have promising medical and veterinary benefits. Scientific research has shown that it can be a modern and effective alternative to commonly used acaricides that ticks have developed resistance to, along with other tick bite prevention strategies to control tick-borne diseases and minimize the burden of disease. Aside from the fact that nanoparticles have a great medical and veterinary perspective, there are also pollution concerns in the vicinity of the application. Plant-based nanosynthesis of metal ions is benign and environmentally friendly.

The future research challenge is to evaluate and validate the negative effects of nanoparticles on the environment, non-targeted risks and contamination sites that arise from the application of nanoparticle-based treatment. So it is a need of the hour to further research these advanced and effective tick control practices with maximum potential and minimal pollution. This can be a big step forward in reducing economic losses and improving global health.

Authors: Sahar Younis DVM, M. Phil Parasitology University of Agriculture Faisalabad Dr. Muhammad Sohail Sajid Chairman, Department of Parasitology University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

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